Ghana Health

Industrializing Ghana through Hemp Production

African Governments can introduce hemp seeds as a modern food staple crop and for the commercial materials made from them: cold pressed oil, shelled seeds (or hemp nuts), flour and protein powder.
Cannabis can be grown without pesticides, herbicides, and with reduced fertiliser inputs. The use of these agro-chemicals is not only expensive in economic terms, but damaging ecologically, both in the production processes, transportation, storage and handling, and to the ecology of an area.


Cannabis requires less water than cotton, when grown as a fibre. Hemp is suited to rotations as it is an annual and could be could be alley-cropped with leguminous trees or shrubs providing windbreaks. It replenishes and reconditions soil (by root binding) and preventing soil erosion.
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Hemp Market Value Chain Profile 2013    SEE MORE PDF

 

Wholly Hemp

Wholly Hemp

 

A 1986 Estimate is given by Kleiman, who puts 1986 consumption at the equivalent of 2700 metric tons of 6% THC cannabis; other trafficking-based estimates range as high as 4700 tons.20  Translated to the U.S, this would amount to over 60,000 retailers and 100,000 jobs. cannabis would also permit the agriculture of hemp, a versatile source of fiber, protein, biomass and oil, which was once one of America’s top crops. Hemp production might well rival that of other leading crops such as cotton or soy beans, which are currently on the order of $ 6 – 10 billion per year.


Save the considerable economic and social costs of the current criminal prohibition system. Current federal drug enforcement programs run at $13 billion per year. State and local programs are probably of similar or greater magnitude: in California, the Legislative Analyst’s Office estimated the cost of state drug enforcement programs at around $640 million per year in 1989-90, plus perhaps twice as much more in local expenditures.26 A sizable chunk of these costs involve cannabis, which accounts for 30% of drug arrests nationwide. Legalization of cannabis would also divert demand from other drugs, resulting in further savings. If legalization reduced current narcotics enforcement costs by one-third to one-fourth, it might save $6 – $9 billion per year.


The economic benefits of marijuana legalization are summarized in Table 2. The total direct savings to government in taxes and enforcement come to some $8 – $16 billion per year. These figures are somewhat lower than those sometimes bandied about in public discourse, as both legalizers and prohibitionists have a tendency to make consumption estimates that are in our opinion inflated. Nonetheless, the benefits of legalization seem both substantial and undeniable, and deserve to be taken seriously.

Table 2
Economic Benefits of Cannabis Legalization

Excise Taxes $2.2 – $6.4 Billion
Sales Taxes $0.2 – $1.3 Billion
Enforcement Savings $6 – $9 Billion
Hemp Industry $6 – $10 Billion
Others: Spinoff industries, Reduced hard-drug and alcohol abuse
Dale Gieringer is coordinator of California NORML (National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws) and co-founder of the California Drug Policy Reform Coalition. He received his doctorate in Engineering-Economic Systems at Stanford.

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California Sample Ballot Nov 2014 Nov 4

There is a very strong correlation, between a state voting for Republicans and receiving more in federal spending than its residents pay to the federal government in taxes (the rust belt and Texas being notable exceptions). In essence, those in blue states are subsidizing those in red states. Both red and blue states appear to be acting politically in opposition to their economic interests. Blue states are voting for candidates who are likely to continue the policies of red state subsidization while red states are voting for candidates who profess a desire to reduce federal spending (and presumably red state subsidization).

Proposition1 Water Bond. Funding for Water Quality, Supply, Koch should pay for the water he uses for Fracking – NO Brown Likes It I Hate It Brown loves Prison Industry and Bobby Jindal

Proposition2   State Budget. Budget Stabilization Account. NO

California General Election Familys back prop 47 abraham-lincoln-government-quotes-no-man-is-good-enough-to-govern-another-man 2014 JayZ_Prop 47 NOV 4

Hemp Contracts for the People not corporations/#prisonIndustry Monopoly

According to recent congressional research, the United States imports roughly half a billion dollars in hemp from other countries while retaining the illegality of its cultivation amongst its own farmers. The same research estimates the hemp market to consist of over 25,000 various products.
President Obama Signs Federal Legislation Removing Barriers for U.S. Industrial Hemp Cultivation; CannaVest Corp and US Hemp Oil Poised to Lead Resurgence of Domestic Industrial Hemp Industry

 

#HandsUpDontShoot #MikeBrown

Invest In Marijuana:  You can watch the presentation here.

 

“Regardless of your feelings about legalizing marijuana two things are abundantly clear: This is an industry that isn’t going away anytime soon… and there is A LOT of money up for grabs for those who recognize this trend early on.”

“The end of marijuana prohibition in America will be one of the biggest and most important social and financial stories of our lifetimes.”

 

 WATCH NOW: Details on the #1 Pot Stock to Buy Right Now

habeas corpus

https://twitter.com/AlgebraPoints/status/463404209938120704
Full Definition of HABEAS CORPUS
1: any of several common-law writs issued to bring a party before a court or judge;
especially : habeas corpus ad subjiciendum A subpoena ad testificandum is a court summons to appear and give oral testimony for use at a hearing or trial. The use of a writ for purposes of compelling testimony originated in the Ecclesiastical Courts of the High Middle Ages, especially in England. The use of the subpoena writ was gradually adopted over time by other courts in England and the European Continent.
2: the right of a citizen to obtain a writ of habeas corpus as a protection against illegal imprisonment
See habeas corpus defined for English-language learners »
: an order to bring a jailed person before a judge or court to find out if that person should really be in jail
apply for a writ of habeas corpus
See habeas corpus defined for kids »
ha·be·as cor·pus
Pronunciation: secondarystresshamacr-bemacron-schwa-primarystressskodotr-pschwas
Function: noun
Etymology: derived from the Latin phrase, meaning literally “you should have the body,” used as the opening words of a legal order to jailers to bring the prisoner to court
1 : a legal order for an inquiry to determine whether a person has been lawfully imprisoned
2 : the right of a citizen to obtain a writ of habeas corpus as a protection against illegal imprisonment
In common law, any of several writs issued to bring a party before a court. The most important such writ (habeas corpus ad subjiciendum) is used to correct violations of personal liberty by directing judicial inquiry into the legality of a detention. Common grounds for relief include a conviction based on illegally obtained evidence, a denial of effective assistance of counsel, or a conviction by a jury that was improperly selected or impaneled. The writ may be used in civil matters to challenge a person’s custody of a child or the institutionalization of a person declared incompetent.
habeas corpus, an ancient common-law writ, issued by a court or judge directing one who holds another in custody to produce the body of the person before the court for some specified purpose. Although there have been and are many varieties of the writ, the most important is that used to correct violations of personal liberty by directing judicial inquiry into the legality of a detention. The habeas corpus remedy is recognized in the countries of the Anglo-American legal system but is generally not found in civil-law countries, although some of the latter have adopted comparable procedures.
habeas corpus
Henry VII [Credit: Courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, London]The origins of the writ cannot be stated with certainty. Before the Magna Carta (1215) a variety of writs performed some of the functions of habeas corpus. During the Middle Ages habeas corpus was employed to bring cases from inferior tribunals into the king’s courts. The modern history of the writ as a device for the protection of personal liberty against official authority may be said to date from the reign of Henry VII (1485–1509), when efforts were made to employ it on behalf of persons imprisoned by the Privy Council. By the reign of Charles I, in the 17th century, the … (200 of 741 words)

Koch Bans The Hemp That would deem Blacks and Crackers, self-sufficient?

Why Blacks are denied the Hemp that would deem them self-sufficient?.

“Make the most of the hemp seed, sow it everywhere.” – George Washington, first president of the U.S. and hemp advocate.

(while creating jobs, restoring soil, slowing climate change, and garnering some 478 other benefits of hemp)?

Hemp: A tall plant easily grown as a crop that can be turned into many things like food, fuel, plastic, fabric, rope, and tree-free paper. The Declaration of Independence was written on hemp paper.

Hemp for rope, lubricating oil, shoe material, and other materials was in such short supply during World War II that the U.S. government temporarily re-legalized hemp so U.S. farmers could grow it for the war effort. Hemp helped us win World War II! Hemp was a common crop that was grown legally in the U.S. for commercial use until 1937.

Unlike virtually all hemp substitutes, growing hemp requires very little effort and very few resources. Most substitutes for hemp (sisal, kenaf, sugar cane) grow in limited geographical areas and none have the paper/fiber potential of hemp. Hemp can be grown in all 50 states!

Corporations that profited from the demise of hemp propagated a smear campaign against hemp by claiming that marijuana use was a major drug problem (it was not) and that marijuana use caused people to become extremely violent – another falsehood.

Unfortunately, these false claims went unchallenged and Congress outlawed hemp in 1937. Unfortunately, millions of Americans still believe the lies spread about marijuana/hemp.

Henry Ford even made auto body panels for early cars which also was fuelled by hemp, using hemp fibers.

KOCH Oxbow upgrades, handles, transports and sells KOCH petroleum coke and sulphur into markets where they can be used to produce aluminum, steel, electric power, fertilizer, cement and other products that kill and maim, that is to say, ‘destroy the planet and everything on it’.

Hemp is apparently the healthiest food on earth, both for feeding people and for feeding farm animals whom people eat or from which people eat the eggs or drink the milk.  The same crop of hemp can, if all goes well, produce material stronger than steel or softer than cotton.

And the same crop can, in theory, produce a third thing at the same time, from yet another part of the plant: fuel.

You can build your tractor out of hemp, fuel it with hemp, and use it to harvest hemp — hemp that is busy restoring your soil, preventing erosion, and surviving the drought and climate change.  You can do this while eating and drinking hemp and wearing clothes made of hemp and washed with hemp in your house also made of hemp and lime — a house that sucks carbon out of the atmosphere. (The list of products and benefits is endless.

EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN

Large scale hemp planting should be encouraged in a HEMP FOR VICTORY program because hemp’s 6’ + root system cleans and aerates soil as done in Chernobyl. Hemp is a biomass champion at pulling excess CO2 from the air. Hemp’s 50,000 products can create revenue to help with health & other issues.

Hemp naturally repels weed growth and hemp has few insect enemies. Few insect enemies and no weed problems means hemp requires NO HERBICIDES and FEW or NO PESTICIDES!

Hemp produces more biomass than any plant that can be grown in the U.S. This biomass can be converted to fuel in the form of clean-burning alcohol, or no-sulphur man-made coal. Hemp has more potential as a clean and renewable energy source than any crop on earth! It is estimated that if hemp was widely grown in the U.S. for fuel/energy, it could supply 100% of all U.S. energy needs!

Marijuana has dozens of proven medicinal uses. Marijuana is more effective, less toxic, and less expensive than alternative synthetic medicines currently used. A recent poll revealed that over 50% of U.S. physicians would prescribe marijuana to their patients if it was legally available.

People who suffer from arthritis, AIDS, rheumatism, leukimia, multiple sclerosis, cancer, glauocoma, and other ailments can benefit from marijuana as medicine.

Cotton requires enormous pesticide use. 50% of all pesticides used in the U.S. are used on cotton. Substituting hemp for cotton would drastically reduce pesticide usage!

But isn’t the precedent of connecting U.S. foreign policy in any way to a substance that benefits, rather than destroys, the environment of potentially great value? While buying hemp abroad might be a move against permitting the production of hemp at home, won’t it just further fuel the argument that it’s insane to make U.S. companies import a raw material that they could much more cheaply grow (while creating jobs, restoring soil, slowing climate change, and garnering some 478 other benefits of hemp)?

Or is insanity just not that big a concern? Jon Walker has a book out called After Legalization. And there’s a book called Hemp Bound by Doug Fine. These guys are convinced that marijuana and hemp are both about to be legalized in the United States.

One of their arguments is that doing so has majority support — and support, they stress, from across the political spectrum (Fine can’t quote anybody without emphasizing that the person is NOT A HIPPIE). “Since when do 80% of Americans agree on anything, as they do that the drug war is a failure?” asks Fine.

MSNBC KOCH V OBAMA DIARIES :

Mobile phones: everyone owns one

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BLOOD COLTAN

You probably have something in your pocket right now that was made possible by brutal rebel groups, exploiting young african laborers…your cellphone. Men, women and children risk their lives and wellbeings to get you the mineral Coltan. Never heard about this? Watch this film. Mobile phones: everyone owns one, they are indispensable in our modern lives. But what almost no one knows: in each one of these devices is blood. Because these small marvels of technology do not work without a metal named Coltan. The main source of this material lies in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is also one of the main sources for the war there. This film explores how these mobile phones are funding killings in the Congo and how people with powerful interests are maintaining this blood trade.

Biggest scramble for Africa since the end of European colonialism.

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This short film looks at how China, a country where human rights are often not respected, is expanding to Africa, a continent where worker rights violations are often not regulated. China’s economic boom is resulting in the biggest scramble for Africa since the end of European colonialism. Thousands of Chinese workers are now in Central Africa, buying up copper and cobalt.Reporter Aidan Hartley and producer Tom Porter begin their journey at a Chinese-owned mining complex. Locals tell Hartley that Chinese investment is fueling an economic boom in Zambia, bringing jobs and also skills that they can pick up. But many Zambians also accuse the Chinese of being so focused on making money out of Africa that they do not care about the local people.

British American Tobacco is breaking its own code of ethics by marketing to children.

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BRITISH AMERICAN TABACCO: BANNATYNE TAKES ON TOBACCO

Join a journalist as he travels to Africa to see if British American Tobacco is breaking its own code of ethics by marketing to children. Duncan Bannatyne, multi-millionaire and the scourge of Dragons’ Den journeys to Africa to explore the rise in the number of kids smoking, and the activities of one tobacco company in particular. He uncovers evidence of the extraordinary marketing tactics of one British-based cigarette company which he believes are encouraging kids to smoke. His sharp business brain forensically gathers the evidence and then confronts the company back in London. But this is not just a hard hitting investigation, this is an emotional journey for Bannatyne. An ex -smoker himself, he loves Africa and in his travels he has a laugh with a tobacco grower, he is teased by the dinner ladies at a school in Malawi where he helps to cook the dinner, and he has to deal with the cockroach in his hotel room. He also meets kids as young as 11 who are not only smoking 10 a day, but also trying to make a living selling cigarettes.

Do you really know where your diamonds come from?

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THE DIAMOND EMPIRE : OPPENHEIMER FAMILY’S CARTEL, ARTIFICIAL SCARCITY
Do you really know where your diamonds come from? What you may learn about how diamonds are obtained and who profits from their sale may surprise you.Diamonds are symbols of wealth, elegance and love around the world. But in several African nations, they have been a means to power, a reason to terrorize millions of innocent civilians, and may have even helped finance some of the world’s most brutal terrorists. The human cost of the illicit global diamond trade is examined in the provocative documentary “Blood Diamonds” from the History Channel.

King Leopold II of Belgium Reign of terror

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CONGO: WHITE KING, RED RUBBER, BLACK DEATH
What is the most massive case of terror by a government in the last two centuries? If you guessed ‘The Holocaust,’ you’re wrong. King Leopold II of Belgium acquired Congo as a colony and exploited its people during his ‘reign of terror,’ a terrible genocide that has unfortunately been mostly forgotten.The Congo had the misfortune to be rich in rubber, and as the increasing popularity of bicycles and cars resulted in a rubber boom, the Belgian monarch resorted to barbaric means to increase production, including punitive mutilation and murder. Eventually news of his barbarism became known to the public through the crusading work of a Liverpool journalist and his missionary allies, but as is often the case, history has an unfortunate way of erasing, hiding, or just plain ignoring painful truths. It was several years before countries realized that they two had been duped in helping Leopold achieve his purely power driven goals.

Cases of slavery around the world

WATch Free Movie Free documentaries

This 80-minute documentary, inspired by Kevin Bales’ award-winning book “Disposable People,” exposes cases of slavery around the world, in India, Africa and right here in the U.S. Slavery is officially banned internationally by all countries, yet despite this there are more slaves in the world today than ever before.In the four hundred years of the legal slave trade around 13 million people were shipped from Africa. Today there are an estimated 27 million slaves – people paid no money, locked away and controlled by violence. Multi-Award winning documentary makers Kate Blewett and Brian Woods – this terrible exploitation with their own eyes.
This film explores three separate industries where slaves are still to be found: the carpet industry in northern India, the cocoa industry in the Ivory Coast, and domestic slavery in Britain and the U.S. At present, approximately 4000-5000 children are missing from Northern Bihar, India. Amongst the missing is Huro, a boy who disappeared at six years old, and hasn’t been seen by his family in over five years.
The cocoa industry of Cote d’Ivoire produces nearly half the world’s supply (over 100 million tons) grown on thousands of small plantations where young men are worked up to eighteen hours a day, unpaid, and beaten if they try to escape. Kate and Brian interview slaves still working in the plantations, as well as a group of young men who had been rescued just days before.
Most people imagine that slavery is only found in the developing world, a long way from Western democratic capitals. Kate and Brian found slavery in both Washington and London. A woman named Dora in Washington and another named Reshma in London both tell stories of cruelty, long hours and no payment. Both wish, in their own courageous way, to bring to the public’s attention the wrong that has been done to them in order to prevent such abuses happening in the future.

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ON OUR WATCH – A DOCUMENTARY ABOUT GENOCIDE IN DARFUR
See how bad the situation in Darfur is in only 10 minutes. Three years of fighting in Darfur have destroyed hundreds of villages, displaced 2.2 million and led to more than 400,000 deaths. President Bush has accused the government of Sudan of genocide, but the U.S. has taken few concrete actions to stop the fighting. Narrated by Sam Waterston, this documentary tells the story of those who have lost their loved ones to this war, those who are fighting to survive and those who are working to bring peace to the region.

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THE DIAMOND EMPIRE : OPPENHEIMER FAMILY’S CARTEL, ARTIFICIAL SCARCITY

Gems are genuinely worth more based on their scarcity. So diamonds must be very rare, right? The entire industry is dominated by one company that has gone to extraordinary lengths to turn an ordinary product into a valuable commodity. Why do some say that this industry is brutal and has it been pulling the wool over our eyes?
How an advertising slogan invented by Madison Avenue executives in 1948 has come to define our most intimate rituals and ideals around courtship and marriage is the subject of this devastating documentary.
THE DIAMOND EMPIRE, which sent shockwaves through the world diamond industry when it first appeared, systematically takes apart the myth that “diamonds are forever,” exposing how one white South African family, through a process of monopoly and fantasy, managed to exert control over the global flow of diamonds and shape the very way we think about romance and love – an achievement all the more stunning given that diamonds are in fact neither a scarce nor indestructible commodity. Zeroing in on how “the diamond empire” managed to convert something valueless into one of the most coveted commodities in history, the film provides a riveting look at how marketing and consumer culture not only influence global trade and economics, but also burrow down into the very core of our identities. Most of the major diamond producers belong to, or have cooperated with, the De Beers–led marketing cartel, formed to maintain the price of diamonds at a high level. De Beers, under Harry Oppenheimer’s leadership (1957 â €“84), maintained its dominant position in the industry by using its numerous worldwide companies to buy up new sources of diamonds and to control distribution of industrial diamonds and production of synthetic ones. In the last decades of the 20th cent., however, De Beers’ hold over the unpolished diamond market decreased, and in 2000 the company announced it would end to its policy of controlling diamond prices through hoarding and shift its focus to increasing sales.

slaughter of 800,000 human beings over 100 days?

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THE GHOSTS OF RWANDA

How could it happen that America and the West stood aside and did nothing to stop the slaughter of 800,000 human beings over 100 days? On the 10th anniversary of the 1994 Rwandan genocide, the powerful story of those who participated in the world’s failure to act, those few who stood up and tried to save lives, and all who are still deeply haunted by what they did. Ghosts of Rwanda marks the 10th anniversary of the Rwandan genocide with a documentary chronicling one of the worst atrocities of the 20th century. In addition to interviews with key government officials and diplomats, this documentary offers eyewitness accounts of the genocide from those who experienced it firsthand. FRONTLINE illustrates the failures that enabled the slaughter of 800,000 people to occur unchallenged by the global community.

 

#KOCH is Black–#HEMP is Green

               I am telling you, why Americans over the age of 65, by contrast, oppose legalizing weed, 59 percent to 38 percent.

Anything Koch Produces out Chemicals is not sustainable but deadly.  Hemp is sustainable plant that grows like a weed; also, stronger than chemicals Koch produces, the junk in world’s garbage.

          Don’t fall for the lie. We are in this together and together we can fix this. We are limited only by our imaginations, which are vast. The first thing that  used to fight the original people was to ban mercantilism; taking away the peoples ability to be legitimate by banning hemp farming. Hemp was refined into sustainable and clean products such as hemp seed foods, hemp oil, beauty medicinal  supplements, wax, resin, rope, cloth, pulp, paper, plastics, trash bags, Steel, rubber and fuel.
As told by African Slavers: Hemp and the African
7 The African Dagga Cultures
          Long before greed and ambition prompted the countries of Western Europe to send their armies to conquer the New World, Europeans were exploring and exploiting Africa.
         The incentives that beckoned the white race to the “dark continent” were many, but chief among them were precious goods such as gold, ivory, and spices. Once they began to colonize the New World, however, European interest focused on yet another African treasure—the slave.
          The growth of the plantation systems in both North and South America had created a sudden demand for cheap and obedient labor, and to meet this demand Europeans, again, looked to Africa.
          Africa was no stranger to the slave trade. Human bondage is one of man’s earliest atrocities. It was commonplace throughout the ancient and early medieval worlds. But until the coming of the Europeans, slav-ery had existed on only a relatively small scale.
          Once the people of Western Europe “discovered” the continent, however, slavery became big business. Approximately ten million native Africans were taken from their homes between the middle of the fifteenth to the end of the nineteenth century to destinations sometimes halfway around the world, to be dis-passionately sold like chattel.

Frustrated at not being able to buy cattle from these natives at a reasonable price, the Dutch immigrants brought their own cattle to the Cape Colony, along with farmers (Boers) to look after them. The coming of the Boers, it turned out, signaled the en-slavement of the Hottentots.

At first, the Dutch and the African got on fairly well together. But as more and more Boers came to the Cape Colony, more and more of the Hottentots’ land was expropriated, including their valuable grazing fields. The Boers were not merely content with robbing the Hottentots of their land, they also began raiding their herds.

The Hottentots offered only a token resistance. They were herders, not warriors; and their spears were no match for gunpowder. To preserve their precious cattle, many of the Hottentots moved further north into the interior. Those who tried to make a fight of it were either killed or taken prisoner and made to serve as domestic servants for the rest of their lives.

Despite his disapproval of the drug, Thompson says that the white landowners cultivated cannabis for their servants, even though its effects were not in the best interests of the whites. The reason for this anomaly, explains Thompson, was that the white man used dagga “as an inducement to retain the wild Bushmen in their service. whom they have made captives at an early age . “11

There were some whites such as evangelist Hugo Hahn who shared Thompson’s belief that continued use of dagga was not in the best interests of the natives. Hahn had come to Africa to save the souls of the savages.

Their use of dagga, Flahn felt, was a vile habit that would keep their souls from ever entering heaven. Not one to sit idly by while souls were at stake, Hahn raided Boer hemp farms, burning the wicked plants wherever he found them. His actions did little to endear him to either the natives or the white settlers of the area.12

Although he could not have cared less about the souls of the na-tives, another crusader who condemned the natives’ indulgence in dagga was the famous American journalist Henry M. Stanley, whose rendezvous with the English missionary, David Livingston in 1871 is immortalized in his terse greeting: “Mr. Livingston, I presume.”

Unlike the compassionate Livingston, Stanley had little regard for the African native whom he described as “wild as a colt, chafing, rest-less, ferociously impulsive, superstitiously timid, liable to furious dem-onstrations, suspicious and unreasonable. . .”13

Stanley was in fact totally prejudiced against the native African. Regarding the natives’ use of cannabis, which he believed weakened their bodies and made them unfit to carry his cumbrous cargo, he wrote:

Certainly most deleterious to the physical powers is the almost universal habit of vehemently inhaling the smoke of the Cannabis sativa or wild hemp. In a light atmosphere, such as we have in hot days in the Tropics, with the thermometer rising to 140 Fahr. in the sun, these people, with lungs and vitals injured by excessive indulgence in these destructive habits, discover they have no physical stamina to sustain them. The rigor of a march in a loaded caravan soon tells upon their weakened powers, and one by one they drop from the ranks, betraying their impotence and infirmaties.14

Apparently, the unwillingness of the natives to risk their lives and to break their backs so that Stanley could become famous was not due to dagga’s weakening of their spirits.

The change in attitude occurred shortly after 1843, when the Republic of Natalia (Natal), on the northeast coast of South Africa, was annexed by England and made a part of the Cape Colony. Following the development of the sugar industry in the new province, more and more laborers were needed to work the fields. When native manpower proved unequal to the task, workers were sought from other countries, especially from the British colony of India, and about 6000 mainly low-caste Indians entered the country.26

Although brought over expressly to work in the sugar fields, these “coolies,” as they were called, left the fields as soon as they were able to satisfy their indenture obligations and they sought jobs in other indus-tries. Many became semi-skilled laborers, domestic servants, farmers, storekeepers, fishermen, etc. But while they fitted into the European way of life, they never became a part of it. Their dark skins, culture, social and religious background, and language set them apart from both the Europeans and the native Africans.

         Europeans were also suspicious of them because of their use of cannabis, a habit which they brought with them from India. Cannabis, the Europeans believed, made the “coolies” sick and lazy and therefore unable to work, and also led them to commit criminal acts.
         The Indian emigrées had not had to import cannabis seeds with them; cannabis was already a popular among the natives and it was probably from them that the Indians obtained their cannabis. It was not long, however, before legal steps were adopted to curtail such usage.
         By 1870, European settlers became so alarmed at the alleged dangers of cannabis to South Africa that they passed a law “prohibiting the smoking use, or possession by the sale, barter, or gift to, any coolies what-soever, of any portion of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). .”27
         But just as identical laws in other countries had no effect on the use of cannabis, so too was it ignored in Africa. In 1887, the Wragg Commission (named after its chairman, Supreme Court Judge Walter Wragg) concluded that the “coolies” were still using cannabis and that the drug posed a danger to white South Africans. Again, measures were taken to outlaw the sale, cultivation, possession, and use of cannabis. Such laws were no more successful than previous ones.
          In 1923, South Africa tried to enlist the aid of the League of Nations in outlawing cannabis on an international scale, but to no avail. Five years later, the country passed yet another anti-cannabis law. This was followed by still more anti-cannabis laws.
          The result was always the same–try though they might to legislate cannabis out of existence, South African lawmakers were never a match for the plant’s tenacious hold over its devotees.
          The safflower and henna supplied the women with dyes for the stuffs which they manufactured from hemp and flax.