Tea party drinks coke #CharlieHebdo Dieudonné M’bala M’bala Wichita, Kansas

Tea party drinks coke #CharlieHebdo Dieudonné M’bala M’bala Wichita, Kansas.

Gertler, whose net worth is estimated at $2.5 billion by U.S. business magazine Forbes, is close to DRC President Joseph Kabila, and has a wide range of interests from mining to trade, according to the Fleurette Group.

He has reportedly helped create more than 20,000 jobs in the DRC after buying his first mine in the troubled country in 1997.

But critics claim that he has built his fortune by acquiring mining permits in the DRC in dubious circumstances, although he has always denied this.

The country has enormous potential mineral wealth, with huge reserves of cobalt, copper, diamonds, gold, silver, zinc and uranium.

But the almost relentless conflict, along with pillaging, illegal mining and a lack of investment, has kept the country classified as low-income, with 70 percent of people living below the poverty line.

Say No to Name- Calling FALSE FLAG THEORY

False Flag Terrorism is The theory that you are whatever the Fox News media finds it convenient for you to be, at any given moment. IE, Nigger, Gang Related,Patriots, Panthers,Communist,ISIS,BokoHaram,Al-Qaeda,Islamic Terrorist, Terrorist,ISIL, Jihadist, Socialist, Moorish,Muslim, Thug, Common Core, Benghazi.This is not the “rule of law”, it is the “rule of control”, and it is very dangerous.

  Read Latest Breaking News from Newsmax.com  http://www.Newsmax.com/Finance/Congo-oil-Israel-Gertler/2014/08/11/id/588064/#ixzz3Po50obBe

Tea party drinks coke #CharlieHebdo Dieudonné M’bala M’bala Wichita, Kansas

Report on Companies and Financial Institutions Benefiting from Violations of Human Rights


All  those who buy mobiles phones, consule games and other hi-tech toys that depend on minerals plundered from Congo –  loudly protest the atrocities. FRANCE

“Economic growth and business development must be pursued in ways that are sustainable in the broadest sense – economic, social, and environmental. Investment and business activity must include commitments to corporate sustainability and responsibility and the highest standards of business ethics.” United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, Istanbul, Turkey, 9 May 2011 – Secretary-General’s Remarks at High-Level Meeting on Investment and Partnerships

“Disobedience is the true foundation of liberty. The obedient must be slaves.” ― Henry David Thoreau

“Disobedience is the true foundation of liberty. The obedient must be slaves.”
― Henry David Thoreau

dan-gertler-is-getting-richer-but-congolese apeople-getting-poorerThis report addresses proven and postulated violations of human and environmental rights by multinational corporations and discloses the financial institutions (FIs) which benefit from these activities. The report exposes modern day slavery and war crimes against families.

Dan Gertler isThe man who became billionaire thanks to Africa minerals resource(False Flag:  events which governments are cognizant of and able to stop but choose to allow to happen (or “stand down”), as a strategy to entangle or prepare the nation for war. Furthermore, the term

 “false flag terrorism” may even be used in those instances when violence is carried out by groups or organizations which, whether they know it or not, are being supported or controlled by the “victim” nation. deHaven-Smith argues that the terminology has become looser in recent years due to the increasingly complex levels of “duplicity” and “international intrigue” between states. Some argue that false flags are methods used by deep states as a form of deep politics.)

A “false flag” incident is some traumatic public event of mass casualties that is:

False: The public are given an untruthful version of the event by the government and the media. The falsity can range from no one actually had been killed or hurt (it was all theater); to some of the alleged victims are real; to all the alleged victims are real but the alleged perpetrator(s) is a fall guy who was set up by the “real” conspirators behind the scenes.
Results in a “rallying around the flag” effect: Whatever the true nature of the “false flag” event, the objective is to arouse and manipulate the emotions (fear, anger, outrage, indignation) of the public so that they’ll “rally around the flag” in an outburst of patriotism, supplying the government and its policies with their support and loyalty.For Example:

JUST CAME OUT The Ferguson Riots Are A Jihad Against America Organized By Muslim Terrorists (STREET JIHAD IS COMING TO AMERICA) by Ted on November 25, 2014 in Featured, General By Theodore Shoebat

Prison Industry Right-Wing Profiteers

Prison Industry Right-Wing Profiteers

Details emerging from investigations into Areva’s purchase of African uranium miner UraMin are beginning to resemble a spy novel.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

 Company Profiles and Harmful Projects:

Alliant Techsystems Inc. Alpha Natural Resources Inc. Anadarko Petroleum Corp. Barrick Gold Corp. BHP Billiton Ltd.  Coca-Cola Co.  Drummond Co. EADS N.V.  ENI S.p.A.  Flextronics International Ltd. General Dynamics Corp.  Glencore International plc H&M AB  Hanwha Corp.  Heckler & Koch GmbH  Hon Hai Precision Industry Co. Ltd. (Foxconn) L-3 Communications Holdings Inc.  Lockheed Martin Corp. Paladin Energy Ltd. Rheinmetall AG  Rio Tinto  Royal Dutch Shell  Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. Textron Inc.  Vale S.A.  Vedanta Resources plc Wilmar International Ltd.

Excursus: Bittersweet – Child Labour and Cacao Farming  Banks and Evil Acts: Deutsche Bank AG 44 Goldman Sachs Group Inc.  Harmful Investments: Analysis of Financial Institutions and their Harmful Investments  Recommendations and Demands  Attachments: Shares and bonds managed by selected financial institutions  Underwritings of shares and bonds per selected financial institution  Participation of selected financial institutions in loans  Norms and standards 

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Firestone  Nokia, Motorola, Ericsson, Sony 3

Attempts to bring more transparency to payments for oil and gas are being challenged. This month, the American Petroleum Institute filed a lawsuit attempting to overturn US legislation on anti-secrecy and transparency in mineral payments.

Areva said it expected UraMin's deposits in South Africa, Namibia and the Central African Republic to produce around 7,000 tonnes annually from 2012

Campaigners in west African countries have linked the lack of transparency in oil and gas revenues to the failure of government to use newfound mineral wealth for the good of its people. “Transparency is the principle that will allow us to truly benefit from our resources,” said Ali Idrissa, a campaigner for transparency in Niger (video). “People used the money from uranium to build themselves houses and make themselves rich.” Niger exports oil and uranium but remains one of the poorest countries in the world, with 62% of the population living in poverty.

Energy Wealth 2 copy 4

Resource exploration cannot sustain itself without a viable and thriving junior sector to start the ball rolling on property development. Recent events in other South American countries (Venezuela, Ecuador) and Eastern Block countries saw drastic regression of junior sector activity. Nationalization and/or monopolization of this sort slows or disables the junior sector. The end result: Stagnant mineral development and significant economic/job loss. Government intervention merely creates the condition for monopolized corporatist collusion which inevitably favors or allows a wonderful back door for some favored elitist to gain an impartial advantage on select land development. This only harms the rest of the industry. We need our governments to regulate and apply fair and impartial justice where property rights have been violated. How can this be accomplished with our elected officials neck deep in the mess?

Energy Wealth 2 copy 2

UN’s Kandeh Yumkella: ‘we will raise $120bn to halve energy poverty’ As head of the Sustainable Energy for All initiative (SE4All), you have been invited to join the discussions at World Water Week. How important is it to look at energy and water together?

The Republic of Congo’s power infrastructure is inadequate and inefficiently operated. The country lags well behind peer countries in generation capacity and electrification. The parts of the population not served by the grid face exorbitant costs. The government has responded to these issues with an ambitious investment plan. However, if new assets are to operate effectively, major inefficiencies in the power utility will also need to be addressed. The utility’s transmission and distribution losses are 47 percent, more than double best-practice benchmarks, while the cost of overstaffing is 30 percent of utility revenue. Tariffs recover barely half the cost of service provision, even though full cost recovery would be affordable to the population.

a strategy to entangle or prepare the nation for war.

a strategy to entangle or prepare the nation for war.

In the ICT sector, the Republic of Congo has made good progress in developing its mobile telephony market in recent years, with high levels of signal coverage. The cost of international connectivity is currently high, but it should fall once the country connects to the international submarine cable and completes its domestic fiber optic network. On the other hand, the physically dilapidated and financially depleted condition of the fixed-line telephone operator is becoming a constraint to raising Internet penetration.dan-gertler-is-getting-richer-but-congolese0apeople-are-getting-poorer copy 2



Ferguson kids Grow hemp copy 2

Continue reading


Since 1995, COPS has awarded over $14 billion to advance community policing, including grants awarded to more than 13,000 state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies to fund the hiring and redeployment of approximately 125,000 officers and provide a variety of knowledge resource products including publications, training, and technical assistance. For additional information about COPS, please visit http://www.cops.usdoj.gov.

Police the Police

Police the Police

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

FergusonMilitaryPolice-807x527 Open Carry For Some

Missouri to start taking hemp production applications

Missouri to start taking hemp production applications

Prison Industry Right-Wing Profiteers

Prison Industry Right-Wing Profiteers

Hemp Heals

Hemp Heals

June 24th, 1812 Napoleon invades Russia to try and put an end to Britain’s main supply of Russian Hemp but by the end of the year the Russian winter had decimated most of Napoleon’s forces. Did you know that the Royal Navy relied on Russian Hemp to stay afloat during their war with the U.S.? (the War of 1812)

* Benjamin Franklin owned one of the first paper mills in America and it processed hemp. Also, the War of 1812 was fought over hemp. Napoleon wanted to cut off Moscow’s export to England (Emperor Wears No Clothes, Jack Herer).
* For thousands of years, 90% of all ships’ sails and rope were made from hemp. The word ‘canvas’ is Dutch for cannabis; (Webster’s New World Dictionary).

* 80% of all textiles, fabrics, clothes, linen, drapes, bed sheets, etc. were made from hemp until the 1820s with the introduction of the cotton gin.

* Until 1883 more than 3/4 of the world’s paper was made from hemp fiber. Hemp crops produce nearly 4 times as much raw fiber than equivalent tree plantations! Hemp paper is finer, stronger & lasts longer than wood-based papers. Bank notes & archival papers are made from hemp paper.

The Steve Scalise story you’re not getting

Scalise,Eric Cantor Foreign Right Wing “Conservative” policymakers, exclusively prescribe policy, by using Divide-To-Conquer strategy. In Rwanda The French used media to create a taller High Class and short, low class; Slaver’s Goal: Free resources, including, water (fracking), control of seeds, soil land (illegal foreclosures Detroit/Probate laws, Kids in military; Foreign soldiers trained by IDF /ADL/BP etc. Acronyms; Rockefeller (BP) ;Bill Gates Feed the children, ‘Still Starving’ I pay more tax than Rockefeller. Then subsidies to BP Monsanto Big Tobacco etc., rest in hands of The Rockefeller’s off shore w/ HQ., Ferguson St. Louis MO, Monsanto, Common Core./British Petroleum , and all other presents media promote conflict. If we could all just get slog or stay away from those you hate we could all distribute the 800 Billion Dollars in 2015 US BLUE STATE TAX Benefits DOD funding for WAR. The US funds Israel 800 Million Dollars a day worth of My tax Money, Israel then uses that money to buy my government and call me names; then buys men/women to represent /American Representatives with my tax money. Takes the rest and teach children that guns, not books, are their friends. Red States don’t have enough people to pay tax, blue states pay tax. Red States population numbers representative of the US Prison Inmates, Inmates are counted, but do not vote. I can get along with all the people that I see everyday, I already do; therefore now as taxpayers, like me, are rich with 800 Billion Dollars DOD budget, together we could close those prison that profit from inmates, working middle class-jobs for free. ADL/Mercenary Global COPS Funding: COPS AWARDS POLICE TRAINING GRANT TO ANTI-DEFAMATION LEAGUE / U.S. HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM PROGRAM http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?Item=922
Emancipation Proclamation Coke-Koch Industries
We Have To Save the World from KOCH. Warned by the smell of gas, two teenagers drove their truck toward the nearest payphone to call for help, but they never made it. Sparks from their truck ignited the gas cloud and the two burned alive . What does Koch want from America? With a $100 billion and operations ranging from oil pipelines and refining to paper products (it owns Georgia-Pacific), synthetic fibers (it bought Lyrca and Stainmaster producer Invista from DuPont), chemicals, mining and cattle ranching. “For six decades around the world, Koch Industries has blazed a path to riches—in part, by making illicit payments to win contracts, trading with a terrorist state, fixing prices, neglecting safety and ignoring environmental regulations. At the same time, Charles and David Koch have promoted a form of government that interferes less with company actions.”
What Bloomberg revealed for the first time were the allegations involving bribery and dealing with Iran. The article reported that the company’s subsidiary Koch-Glitsch paid bribes to secure contracts in six countries (Algeria, Egypt, India, Morocco, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia) and that it violated U.S. sanctions by doing business with Iran, including the sale of materials that helped the country build the world’s largest plant to convert natural gas to methanol used in plastics, paints and chemicals. SEE The environmental cases alluded to by Bloomberg previously reported and included the following. ‪http://tinyurl.com/KOCHGerms

Progressive Culture | Scholars & Rogues

Once again, journalists miss the big picture

As you may or may not have heard, Rep. Steve Scalise (R-La), House Majority Whip since August, spoke in front of some bad people back in 2002. The story was broken at a (mostly) Louisiana political blog, CenLamar, by blogger Lamar White, Jr. Steve Scalise reportedly had spoken in front of a conference held by an organization founded by none other than ex-Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan and Louisiana political darling (sorry, Louisiana, but you wet your own nest, so the stink sticks), David Duke.

View original post 1,605 more words

At least 28,000 children and teens were killed by guns over an 11-year-period | Trace guns back 2 #NRA 4 kids Sake

bach-dang-victory-938-171article-blackhistory-coverstory-1-0206Ferguson Missouri Monsanto,Ola­ju­won Ali,Bran­don Bald­win;Paris France Belgium, Charlie Hebdo; Dieudonné;GAZA ADL.Fighting For France:symposium-cover

But neither America nor Vietnam wanted the kids known as Amerasians and commonly dismissed by the Vietnamese as “children of the dust”—as insignificant as a speck to be brushed aside. “The care and welfare of these unfortunate children…has never been and is not now considered an area of government responsibility,” the U.S. Defense Department said in a 1970 statement. “Our society does not need these bad elements,” the Vietnamese director of social welfare in Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon) said a decade later. As adults, some Amerasians would say that they felt cursed from the start. When, in early April 1975, Saigon was falling to Communist troops from the north and rumors spread that southerners associated with the United States might be massacred, President Gerald Ford announced plans to evacuate 2,000 orphans, many of them Amerasians. Operation Babylift’s first official flight crashed in the rice paddies outside Saigon, killing 144 people, most of them children. South Vietnamese soldiers and civilians gathered at the site, some to help, others to loot the dead. Despite the crash, the evacuation program continued another three weeks.

Children of the Vietnam War

Born overseas to Vietnamese mothers and U.S. servicemen, Amerasians brought hard-won resilience to their lives in Americaimage_08_13_030_R07-2010 VA035843thumb 1101670526_400 %22..._troops_in_Burma_stop_work_briefly_to_read_President_Truman's_Proclamation_of_Victory_in_Europe.%22_-_NARA_-_531341 369th_15th_New_York KoreanWarSoldier soul-train VA000365thumb joe-taylor-black-marine-vietnam Ten Honored - DC 29f2b3041b861d8836a24f5381f4bcdf


At least 28,000 children and teens were killed by guns over an 11-year-period | Trace guns back 2 #NRA 4 kids Sake. http://gunwars.news21.com/2014/at-least-28000-children-and-teens-were-killed-by-guns-over-an-11-year-period/

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Read more: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people-places/children-of-the-vietnam-war-131207347/#P5U7yimJYmBiLvRS.99
Give the gift of Smithsonian magazine for only $12! http://bit.ly/1cGUiGv
Follow us: @SmithsonianMag on Twitter

Ferguson Missouri Monsanto,Ola­ju­won Ali,Bran­don Bald­win;Paris France Belgium, Charlie Hebdo; Dieudonné;GAZA ADL

a strategy to entangle or prepare the nation for war.

FASLE FLAG – a strategy to entangle or prepare the nation for war.In its most modern usage, the term may also refer to those events which governments are cognizant of and able to stop but choose to allow to happen (or “stand down”), as a strategy to entangle or prepare the nation for war. Furthermore, the term “false flag terrorism” may even be used in those instances when violence is carried out by groups or organizations which, whether they know it or not, are being supported or controlled by the “victim” nation.

France and the enduring endless History of  exploitation and American False Flag Operations 

Earlier in 1963, Kennedy’s Undersecretary of State, U. Alexis Johnson, was speaking before the Economic Club of Detroit:

What is the attraction that Southeast Asia has exerted for centuries on the great powers flanking it on all sides? Why is it desirable, and why is it important? First, it provides a lush climate, fertile soil, rich natural resources, a relatively sparse population in most areas, and room to expand. The countries of Southeast Asia produce rich exportable surpluses such as rice, rubber, teak, corn, tin, spices, oil, and many others. … This is not the language that was used by President Kennedy in his explanations to the American public. He talked of Communism and freedom. In a news conference February 14, 1962, he said; “Yes, as you know, the U.S. for more than a decade has been assisting the government, the people of Vietnam, to maintain their independence.”

Three weeks after the execution of Diem, Kennedy himself was assassinated, and his Vice- President, Lyndon Johnson, took office. THE IMPOSSIBLE VICTORY: VIETNAM From 1964 to 1972, the wealthiest and most powerful nation in the history of the world made a maximum military effort, with everything short of atomic bombs, to defeat a nationalist revolutionary movement in a tiny, peasant country-and failed. When the United States fought in Vietnam, it was organized modern technology versus organized human beings, and the human beings won. In the course of that war, there developed in the United States the greatest antiwar movement the nation had ever experienced, a movement that played a critical part in bringing the war to an end. It was another startling fact of the sixties.


PACK YOUR BAGS and GET OUT! from the outset the relationship between Algeria and France, French and Algerians, was a racist, colonial one, based on violence. – See more at: http://www.historytoday.com/martin-evans/french-resistance-and-algerian-war#sthash.r4MsAOey.dpuf

French Resistance and the Algerian War Colonialism began with violence and it was ended by violence. The Algerian war started with the insurrection organised by the National Liberation Front (FLN), on November 1st, 1954, and lasted until 1962 when Algeria became independent. – See more 

bill o'reilly Boycott France  Buy your Boycott France Bumper Sticker today.

bill o’reilly Boycott France Buy your Boycott France Bumper Sticker today.

Vietnam War 1945-1960 Vietnam citizens fought Trinh symbolized resistance to the French for many educated Vietnamese.The French regime would not allow anyone to gather and hold discussions.

Just as the Americans in 1776 had listed their grievances against the English King, the Vietnamese listed their complaints against French rule: They have enforced inhuman laws…. They have built more prisons than schools. They have mercilessly slain our patriots, they have drowned uprisings in rivers of blood. They have fettered public opinion…. They have robbed us of our rice fields, our mines, our forests, and our raw materials… . They have invented numerous unjustifiable taxes and reduced our people, especially our peasantry, to a state of extreme poverty. … …from the end of last year, to the beginning of this year . . . more than two million of our fellow-citizens died of starvation. .. . The whole Vietnamese people, animated by a common purpose, are determined to fight to the bitter end against any attempt by the French colonialists to reconquer their country.

During the conference, representatives from France request the return of all French pre-war colonies in Southeast Asia (Indochina). Their request is granted.

Indochina War Casualties: French forces: 75,581 dead, 64,127 wounded, 40,000 captured Communist Viet Minh, Pathet Lao, and Khmer Issarak forces: 300,000+ dead, 500,000+ wounded, 100,000+ captured Civilians: Over 150,000 civilians killed

U.S. marines wading through a marsh during the Vietnam War, November 1965.

U.S. marines wading through a marsh during the Vietnam War, November 1965.

The human costs of the long conflict were harsh for all involved. Not until 1995 did Vietnam release its official estimate of war dead: as many as 2 million civilians on both sides and some 1.1 million North Vietnamese and Viet Cong fighters. The U.S. military has estimated that between 200,000 and 250,000 South Vietnamese soldiers died in the war. In 1982 the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C., inscribed with the names of 57,939 members of U.S. armed forces who had died or were missing as a result of the war. Over the following years, additions to the list have brought the total past 58,200. (At least 100 names on the memorial are those of servicemen who were actually Canadian citizens.) Among other countries that fought for South Vietnam on a smaller scale, South Korea suffered more than 4,000 dead, Thailand about 350, Australia more than 500, and New Zealand some three dozen.

Algebrra Works word toy

The French have enforced inhuman laws…. They have built more prisons than schools. They have mercilessly slain our patriots, they have drowned uprisings in rivers of blood. They have fettered public opinion…. They have robbed us of our rice fields, our mines, our forests, and our raw materials… . They have invented numerous unjustifiable taxes and reduced our people, especially our peasantry, to a state of extreme poverty. … …from the end of last year, to the beginning of this year . . . more than two million of our fellow-citizens died of starvation. .. . The whole Vietnamese people, animated by a common purpose, are determined to fight to the bitter end against any attempt by the French colonialists to reconquer their country.

Iran Contra Israel reaganSkeleton Rand Ayn 2 irancontra-affair-bush-oliver-northHamites I I Who am Iif-not-now-when-2israel-nuclear 2get-attachment-125-587x391israel-freezes-palestine tax-funds-over-icc-war-crimes-bid-middle-east-monitorGAZA WallOccupied Territories labels on goodsIsrael Massad and Syriawanted-for-murder-Irish margaret-thatcherWhere is inside congressAlicontra_mtg 2 MONSANTO French Ho Chi Minh wrote eight letters to President Truman, reminding him of the self-determination promises of the Atlantic Charter: I wish to invite attention of your Excellency for strictly humanitarian reasons to following matter. Two million Vietnamese died of starvation during winter of 1944 and spring 1945 because of starvation policy of French who seized and stored until it controlled all available rice. … Three- fourths of cultivated land was flooded in summer 1945, which was followed by a severe drought; of normal harvest five-sixths was lost. … Many people are starving. .. . Unless great world powers and international relief organizations bring us immediate assistance we face imminent catastrophe… Truman never replied. By 1954, the United States had given 300,000 small arms and machine guns, enough to equip the entire French army in Indochina, and $1 billion; all together, the U.S. was financing 80 percent of the French war effort. The CIA’s active involvement in staging terrorism, coups and assassinations around the world has been proven beyond a doubt despite the US government’s standard official policy to cover-up, lie and deny. These state sponsored acts of terror were not limited to just Italy only but evidence exists that they were also committed in France, Belgium,

Genocide is an actively evil process.

But it doesn’t have to be active; it doesn’t even have to be on person. Often, evil is merely a by-product, an unintended (but purposefully overlooked) consequence of greed, sociopathy, a lack of empathy, and an almost incomprehensible apathy. Evil doesn’t have to be borne by emotion – it can just as easily be borne by disregard. The banality of evil is just that.

Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Germany and Switzerland and later expanded heavily in the 1990’s with Gladio B in Turkey and Central Asia as well. For many decades US State Department personnel along with CIA operatives covertly working behind the scenes with NATO and various right wing reactionary groups have included high ranking European politicians, judges, security forces, military officers and organized crime drug lords to repeatedly kill hundreds of innocent civilians en masse. the-french-colonies-of-north-america-2-728

The French Colonies of North America

The French Colonies of North America

Anti Japhetic Semitic Hamitic Black-Red yellow white

Anti Japhetic Semitic Hamitic Black-Red yellow white

world-vomit-bestColonial wars (1620–1774) Colonial American military history

Beginning in 1689, the colonies became involved in a series of wars between Great Britain BP British Petroleum and France for control of North America, the most important of which were Queen Anne’s War, in which the British conquered French colony Acadia, and the final French and Indian War (1754–1763) when Britain was victorious over all the French colonies in North America. This final war was to give thousands of colonists, including Virginia colonel George Washington, military experience which they put to use during the American Revolution.

 American Revolutionary War After the American war of Independence (1776-1779), and an English challenge to that independence (1812-1814) no single nation has planned an offensive war against the USA. It is probable that a strong coalition of Anglo-French-led European nations planned to split the USA into two states through diplomatic recognition of the Confederate states possibly followed up by naval blockade embargoing the Union. At that time the British Empire was the strongest naval power, and the French the second strongest. The events led, however, into the Civil War (1860-1865) and due to the Russian intervention 1863 (1863) on the Union’s side, those European plans were quietly abandoned. The Continental Congress in 1775 established the Continental Army and named General George Washington its commander. This newly formed army, along with state militia forces, and the French army and navy, defeated the British in 1781. The new Constitution in 1789 made the president the commander in chief, with authority for the Congress to levy taxes, make the laws, and declare war. War of Independence (1775–1783) A shift in focus to the southern American states in 1779 resulted in a string of victories for the British, but General Nathanael Greene engaged in guerrilla warfare and prevented them from making strategic headway. The main British army was surrounded by Washington’s American and French forces at Yorktown in 1781, as the French fleet blocked a rescue by the Royal Navy. The British then sued for peace. Early national period (1783–1812) Main articles: Northwest Indian War, Quasi-War, Barbary Wars, Tecumseh’s War and Creek War When revolutionary France declared war on Great Britain in 1793, the United States sought to remain neutral, but the Jay Treaty, which was favorable to Great Britain, angered the French government, which viewed it as a violation of the 1778 Treaty of Alliance. French privateers began to seize U.S. vessels, which led to an undeclared “Quasi-War” between the two nations. Fought at sea from 1798 to 1800, the United States won a string of victories in the Caribbean. George Washington was called out of retirement to head a “provisional army” in case of invasion by France, but President John Adams managed to negotiate a truce, in which France agreed to terminate the prior alliance and cease its attacks.

Bush Awards no-bid Iraq Contracts to Halliburton.Cheney's Halliburton Made $39.5 Billion on Iraq War

Bush Awards no-bid Iraq Contracts to Halliburton: Total equity $7.725 billion company. Cheney’s Halliburton Made $39.5 Billion on Iraq War

American Civil War (1861–1865) The American Civil War caught both sides unprepared. The Confederacy hoped to win by getting Britain and France to intervene, or else by wearing down the North’s willingness to fight. The U.S. sought a quick victory focused on capturing the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia. The Confederates under Robert E. Lee tenaciously defended their capital until the very end. The war spilled across the continent, and even to the high seas. Most of the material and personnel of the South were used up, while the North prospered. World War I (1917–1918)  American entry into World War I and American Expeditionary Forces The 69th Infantry Regiment parading upon returning to New York City. The United States originally wished to remain neutral when World War I broke out in August 1914. However, it insisted on its right as a neutral party to immunity from German submarine attack, even though its ships carried food and raw materials to Britain. In 1917 the Germans resumed submarine attacks, knowing that it would lead to American entry. When the U.S declared war, the U.S. army was still small by European standards and mobilization would take a year. Meanwhile the U.S. continued to provide supplies and money to Britain and France, and initiated the first peacetime draft.[40] Industrial mobilization took longer than expected, so divisions were sent to Europe without equipment, relying instead on the British and French to supply them. 1920s: Naval disarmament   Washington Naval Conference The U.S. sponsored a major world conference to limit the naval armaments of world powers, including the U.S., Britain, Japan, and France, plus smaller nations.[44] Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes made the key proposal of each country to reduce its number of warships by a formula that was accepted. The conference enabled the great powers to reduce their navies and avoid conflict in the Pacific. The treaties remained in effect for ten years, but were not renewed as tensions escalated.[45] World War II (1941–1945) Main articles: Military history of the United States during World War II, United States Army Air Forces during World War II and Special relationship Starting in 1940 (18 months before Pearl Harbor), the nation mobilized, giving high priority to air power. American involvement in World War II in 1940-41 was limited to providing war material and financial support to Britain, the Soviet Union, and the Republic of China. The U.S. entered officially on 8 December 1941 following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Japanese naval forces soon seized American, Dutch, and British possessions across the Pacific and Southeast Asia, except for Australia, which became a main American forward base along with Hawaii. The loss of eight battleships and 2,403 Americans[47] at Pearl Harbor forced the U.S. to rely on its remaining aircraft carriers, which won a major victory over Japan at Midway just six months into the war, and on its growing submarine fleet. The Navy and Marine Corps followed this up with an island hopping campaign across the central and south Pacific in 1943–45, reaching the outskirts of Japan in the Battle of Okinawa. During 1942 and 1943, the U.S. deployed millions of men and thousands of planes and tanks to the UK, beginning with the strategic bombing of Nazi Germany and occupied Europe and leading up to the Allied invasions of occupied North Africa in November 1942, Sicily and Italy in 1943, France in 1944, and the invasion of Germany in 1945, parallel with the Soviet invasion from the east. That led to the surrender of Nazi Germany in May 1945. In the Pacific, the U.S. experienced much success in naval campaigns during 1944, but bloody battles at Iwo Jima and Okinawa in 1945 led the U.S. to look for a way to end the war with minimal loss of American lives. The U.S. used atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki to destroy the Japanese war effort and to shock the Japanese leadership, which quickly caused the surrender of Japan. Libyan intervention Main article: Operation Odyssey Dawn As a result of the Libyan Civil War, the United Nations enacted United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, which imposed a no-fly zone over Libya, and the protection of civilians from the forces of Muammar Gaddafi. The United States, along with Britain, France and several other nations, committed a coalition force against Gaddafi’s forces. On 19 March, the first U.S. action was taken when 114 Tomahawk missiles launched by US and UK warships destroyed shoreline air defenses of the Gaddafi regime.[72] The U.S. continued to play a major role in Operation Unified Protector, the NATO-directed mission that eventually incorporated all of the military coalition’s actions in the theater. Throughout the conflict however, the U.S. maintained it was playing a supporting role only and was following the UN mandate to protect civilians, while the real conflict was between Gaddafi’s loyalists and Libyan rebels fighting to depose him.[73] During the conflict, American drones were also deployed.[74] Beirut In 1983 fighting between Palestinian refugees and Lebanese factions reignited that nation’s long-running civil war. A UN agreement brought an international force of peacekeepers to occupy Beirut and guarantee security. US Marines landed in August 1982 along with Italian and French forces. On October 23, 1983, a suicide bomber driving a truck filled with 6 tons of TNT crashed through a fence and destroyed the Marine barracks, killing 241 Marines; seconds later, a second bomber leveled a French barracks, killing 58. Subsequently the US Navy engaged in bombing of militia positions inside Lebanon. While US President Ronald Reagan was initially defiant, political pressure at home eventually forced the withdrawal of the Marines in February 1984. Following the Persian Gulf War, to protect minority populations, the US, Britain, and France declared and maintained no-fly zones in northern and southern Iraq, which the Iraqi military frequently tested. The no-fly zones persisted until the 2003 invasion of Iraq, although France withdrew from participation in patrolling the no-fly zones in 1996, citing a lack of humanitarian purpose for the operation. The United States, along with Britain, France and several other nations, committed a coalition force against Gaddafi’s forces.